Characteristics of commonly used rechargeable batteries
1) Internal resistance of a battery pack varies with mAh rating, wiring and number of cells. Protection circuit of lithium-ion adds about 100mW.
2) Based on 18650 cell size. Cell size and design determines internal resistance. Larger cells can have an impedance of <15mOhms,
3) Cycle life is based on battery receiving regular maintenance. Failing to apply periodic full discharge cycles may reduce the cycle life by a factor of three.
4) Cycle life is based on the depth of discharge. Shallow discharges provide more cycles than deep discharges.
5) The self-discharge is highest immediately after charge, and then tapers off. The capacity loss of nickel-cadmium is 10% in the first 24h, then declines to about 10% every 30 days thereafter. High temperature increases self-discharge.
6) Internal protection circuits typically consume 3% of the stored energy per month.
7) The traditional nominal voltage is 1.25V; 1.2V is more commonly used to harmonize with lithium-ion (3 in series = 3.6V).
8) Lithium-ion is often rated higher than the nominal 3.6V. Based on average voltage under load.
9) Capable of high current pulses; needs time to recuperate.
10) Applies to discharge only; charge temperature range is more confined. Delivers lower capacity at lower temperatures.
11) Maintenance may be in the form of 'equalizing' or 'topping' charge to prevent sulphation.